SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive-sense RNA virus and it's the 7th coronavirus which can infect human causing disease ranging from mild common cold, fever, dry cough, fatigue, shortness of breath and severe respiratory failure.
SARS-CoV-2 testing may be incorporated as part of a comprehensive approach to reducing transmission. Symptom screening, testing, and contact tracing are strategies to identify people infected with SARS-CoV-2 so that actions can be taken to slow and stop the spread of the virus.
Various categories of in vitro diagnostic tests are used to detect SARS-CoV-2: Viral tests, including nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and antigen tests are used as diagnostic tests to detect infection with SARS-CoV-2 which is important to patient isolation, management and treatment. Antibody tests (Serology tests) are widely used in the previous SARS-CoV-2 infection detection and aid in the diagnosis of current SARS-CoV-2 infection combined with PCR, clinical symptoms, risk factors or a chest CT scan.
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The SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test is an aid to be used in the diagnosis of patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection in conjunction with clinical presentation and the results of other laboratory tests.
Negative results do not preclude SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and should not be used as the sole basis for patient management decisions. Negative results must be combined with clinical observations, patient history, and epidemiological information.
Antibodies - including IgA, IgM and IgG are detectable within 1-3 weeks after infected by SARS-CoV-2. IgA and IgM antibodies can arise simultaneously in the first weeks after the onset of symptoms, and IgG arise subsequently. However, IgM and IgA antibodies decay more rapidly than IgG [3-5].
IgM is most useful for determining recent infection as it usually becomes undetectable weeks to months following infection, and IgG may remain detectable for longer periods which is usually used to screen the previous infection cases. IgA is important for mucosal immunity and can be detected in mucous secretions like saliva in addition to blood.
SARS-CoV-2 infection begins when the RBD of the S protein of the virus binds to the ACE-2 receptor site in humans, the initial step in viral entry into human cells. Preventing SARS-CoV-2 from binding with ACE-2 receptors in the respiratory tract of humans can prevent infection and illness. This interaction between S protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 and the ACE-2 receptor sites has been the major focus of vaccine development . RBD and Neutralization antibody detection play an important role in vaccination evaluation.
From infection diagnosis, vaccination evaluation to patient monitoring, Autobio provide complete products for COVID diagnosis and treatment!
 WHO. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when COVID-19 is suspected external icon. 13 March 2020.
 CDC. Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Mar. 17, 2021.
 Qu J, Wu C, Li X, Zhang G, Jiang Z, Li X, et al. Profile of immunoglobulin G and IgM antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 19;71(16):2255-8.
 Wolfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, Seilmaier M, Zange S, Muller MA, et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature. 2020 May;581(7809):465-9.
 Iyer AS, Jones FK, Nodoushani A, Kelly M, Becker M, Slater D, et al. Persistence and decay of human antibody responses to the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in COVID-19 patients. Sci Immunol. 2020 Oct 8;5(52).